Czech ACM Student Chapter
Czech Technical University in Prague
Charles University in Prague
Technical University of Ostrava
acm
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Slovak University of Technology
Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Koˇice
s
cz
ˇ
University of Zilina
Masaryk University
Matej Bel University in Bansk´ Bystrica
a
University of West Bohemia
CTU Open Contest 2012
Lisa the Ladybug likes mathematics. She counts her seven dots several times every day. To
further improve her skills, she studies at the Arthropoda College in the Meadow. Today, she is
preparing for an exam by her professor, Calculon the Centipede. At the exam, the student is
expected to show the number of Calculon's legs on the display of a calculator. The calculator
was found many years ago among other waste in a landfill. Some of its keys are not working
and the display has only three digits. The working keys form a subset of:
0123456789 + - ∗ / =
Buttons "0","1",. . . , "9" are called the numeric buttons, "=" is the equals button, and
the other
buttons are the operator buttons. The calculator also has the "C" key to reset it,
but only
Calculon is allowed to press it, so we will not consider it in this problem. The result of
the exam
depends on the number of keys pressed to obtain the prescribed value. Lisa wants
a perfect
score and so she needs to find the shortest possible sequence of key presses.
The work of the calculator is described by the diagram below. The calculator has three registers:
disp holds the value displayed, operator is the last operator or equals button pressed and value
is a stored value. At the beginning of the exam, the calculator is in the state S and the registers
have the values set by the INIT block. Pressing a button B changes the state in the direction
of the arrow labeled by B and the code in the block next to the arrow is executed. The result
of the function eval(val1 , op, val2 ) is the result of the operator applied on val1 and val2, that is,
for example, val1 + val2.
+-*/=
if(Button=='=' and operator ='=')
disp:=eval(value, operator, disp);
operator:=Button;
+-*/=
value:=disp;
O
operator:=Button
+-*/=
INIT
if(operator {'=', N/A})
/
disp:=0;
0-9
S
disp:=eval(value, operator, disp);
value:=0;
disp:=Button;
operator:=Button;
operator:=N/A;
value:=disp;
0-9
N
0-9
disp:=Button;
disp:=10*disp+Button;
The description may look complicated, but the calculator works in quite a standard way. There
are just a few specifics and details that you should take note of:
· It displays only non-negative integers in the range [0, 999]. Obtaining a value outside this
range anytime during the exam causes an error and failure at the exam.
· Result of a division is an integer; the exact result is always rounded down.
· Pressing the equals button two or more times always has the same effect as pressing it
once.
· Pressing the equals button right after an operator button results in the operator being
evaluated with two equal operands.
· A sequence of operator buttons behaves in the same way as if only the last button of the
sequence was pressed.
For example, in the first sample input, 2 2 / 3 + and 2 2 / 3 / are among the optimal solutions,
while 3 + 2 + 2 + is also a solution, but longer. In the second sample input, 3 + 2 + 2 +
and 2 + = + 3 + are among the optimal solutions.
Input Specification
Each line of the input describes one test case. A line starts with a non-empty list of available
buttons (from the allowed set) followed by a single space and the number N (0 N 999)
denoting the number of Calculon's legs, that means the number to be displayed.
Output Specification
For each test case, output a single line with the length of the shortest sequence of buttons, the
pressing of which will result in the number N being displayed by the calculator. If the task
cannot be solved, write a line with the word "impossible".
Sample Input
Output for Sample Input
23+/ 7
5
32=+ 7
6
3+= 6
3
3+= 9
6
20
0
1+ 11
2
2+* 1
impossible
1+ 17
15
1+= 17
11